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The Francis turbine is a reaction turbine that was invented in 1848 by James B. Francis, an English engineer living in America. This is a reaction turbine because it exploits the pressure differential between the runner inlet and outlet.

The Kaplan turbine was invented in 1913 by an Austrian professor, Viktor Kaplan. It is a hydraulic reaction turbine that works with small pressure heads to few dozen meters. It is a propeller-type turbine, and can be single or double regulation.

The Pelton turbine was invented by carpenter Lester Allan Pelton in 1879 while he was working in California, and to this day it is still the turbine with the best efficiency profile. This type of turbine it’s ideal for big heads and small flow rates.

Tubular turbines are starting to getting a growing interest across the globe and are often used instead of Kaplan turbines in very low pressure head situations.

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